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I am trying to make the animation of bending a 3D bow. How to achieve this in Unity? What components I should use?
Well, for things like this I would always recommend not doing it in Unity actually but rather using a 3D modeling / animation program like e.g. Blender.
Within Blender you can not only model the bow, but also rig it to allow for later animation of the wooden part. However, when it comes to the "rope" of the bow, one could think of doing that part of the bow completely in Unity. One could think of "drawing" it and then giving it some force to let it wiggle. But depending on how you want to look your bow in the end, I'd recommend doing it completely in blender, exporting it with animations and then triggering those animations in unity.